From the moment the electronic cigarette was invented, various types of material drip tips appeared on the market. The most common are the following materials: Metal (stainless steel, aluminum, brass, copper), Plastic(ABS, Acrylic, POM, PEI, Delrin, Teflon), Pyrex Glass, Ceramic, Carbon Fiber, Resin, Wood, Stone, and so on.
Stainless steel’s resistance to corrosion and staining, low maintenance, and familiar luster make it an ideal material for many applications. Stainless steels are rolled into sheets, plates, bars, wire, and tubing to be used in cookware, cutlery, surgical instruments, major appliances and as construction material in large buildings, such as the Chrysler Building. As well as, industrial equipment (for example, in paper mills, chemical plants, water treatment), and storage tanks and tankers for chemicals and food products (for example, chemical tankers and road tankers). Stainless steels corrosion resistance, the ease with which it can be steam cleaned and sterilized and no need for other surface coatings has also influenced its use in commercial kitchens and food processing plants.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc. The proportions of zinc and copper can vary to create different types of brass alloys with varying mechanical and electrical properties. It is a substitutional alloy: atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same crystal structure.
Copper occurs naturally as native metallic copper and was known to some of the oldest civilizations on record. The history of copper use dates to 9000 BC in the Middle East; a copper pendant was found in northern Iraq that dates to 8700 BC. Evidence suggests that gold and meteoric iron (but not iron smelting) were the only metals used by humans before copper. The history of copper metallurgy is thought to follow this sequence: First, cold working of native copper, then annealing, smelting, and, finally, lost-wax casting. In southeastern Anatolia, all four of these techniques appear more or less simultaneously at the beginning of the Neolithic c. 7500 BC.
Polyoxymethylene (POM), also known as acetal, polyacetal and polyformaldehyde, is an engineering thermoplastic used in precision parts requiring high stiffness, low friction, and excellent dimensional stability. As with many other synthetic polymers, it is produced by different chemical firms with slightly different formulas and sold variously by such names as Delrin, Celcon, Ramtal, Duracon, Kepital and Hostaform.
Polyetherimide (PEI) is an amorphous, amber-to-transparent thermoplastic with characteristics similar to the related plastic PEEK. Relative to PEEK, PEI is cheaper but is lower in impact strength and usable temperature.
Stabilized wood that is to be used for knife handle material is wood that has been impregnated with a chemical stabilizing solution. This stabilized wood can then be worked with normal wood working tools. Cutting, shaping and sanding will be similar to working with a dense hardwood. The purpose of stabilizing wood is to make it more durable and less prone to warping or cracking than natural, untreated wood.
Epoxy resins are characterized by their very good electrical properties and chemical resistance, good strength and low absorption of moisture.
They are versatile resins, offering particularly excellent resistance to corrosion (solvents, alkalis and some acids), high strength/weight ratio, dimensional stability and adhesion properties. They are linear polymers produced by condensing epichlorohydrin with bisphenol A. Other formulations are glycidyl esters (for vacuum impregnation, lamination and casting), glycidyl ethers of novolac resins, and brominated resins. They differ from polyesters and vinyl esters in that they do not contain any volatile monomer component. Different resins are produced by varying the ratios of the components.
Acrylate polymers belong to a group of polymers which could be referred to generally as plastics. They are noted for their transparency, resistance to breakage, and elasticity. They are also commonly known as acrylics or polyacrylates. Acrylate polymer is commonly used in cosmetics such as nail polish as an adhesive.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers. The alternative spelling 'fibre' is common in British Commonwealth countries. CFRPs can be expensive to produce but are commonly used wherever high strength-to-weight ratio and rigidity are required, such as aerospace, automotive, civil engineering, sports goods and an increasing number of other consumer and technical applications.
The binding polymer is often a thermoset resin such as epoxy, but other thermoset or thermoplastic polymers, such as polyester, vinyl ester or nylon, are sometimes used. The composite may contain aramid (e.g. Kevlar, Twaron), aluminum, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) or glass fibers in addition to carbon fibers. The properties of the final CFRP product can also be affected by the type of additives introduced to the binding matrix (the resin). The most frequent additive is silica, but other additives such as rubber and carbon nanotubes can be used. The material is also referred to as graphite-reinforced polymer or graphite fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP is less common, as it clashes with glass-(fiber)-reinforced polymer).
Pyrex (trademarked as PYREX) is a brand introduced by Corning Inc. in 1908 for a line of clear, low-thermal-expansion borosilicate glass used for laboratory glassware and kitchenware. It was later expanded to include clear and opal ware products made of soda-lime glass.
Corning no longer manufactures or markets consumer glass kitchenware and bakeware. Corning Consumer Products Company, which was spun off from Corning Inc. in 1998 and renamed World Kitchen, LLC in 2000, continues to license the pyrex (all lower case) brand for their tempered soda-lime glass line of kitchenware products sold for the consumer market in the United States, South America, and Asia. In the regions of Europe, Africa, and the Middle East the PYREX (all upper case) brand is licensed by International Cookware for use on their borosilicate glass products. The brand name has also been used for non-glass kitchen utensils and cookware in various regions for several decades.
A ceramic is an inorganic compound, non-metallic, solid material comprising metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds. This article gives an overview of ceramic materials from the point of view of materials science.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. The best-known brand name of PTFE-based formulas is Teflon by Chemours. Chemours is a 2015 spin-off of DuPont Co., which discovered the compound in 1938.
PTFE is a fluorocarbon solid, as it is a high-molecular-weight compound consisting wholly of carbon and fluorine. PTFE is hydrophobic: neither water nor water-containing substances wet PTFE, as fluorocarbons demonstrate mitigated London dispersion forces due to the high electronegativity of fluorine. PTFE has one of the lowest coefficients of friction of any solid.